A YEAR WITHOUT WAR?
This is a timeline of US involvement in war since WWII. Many US involvements are set in bold, but by no means are even a majority of US actions highlighted, listed, or described here. It would be tempting to go back and show a continuity as far back as the 17th-19th century wars of genocide against Native Americans, punctuated by the Trail of Tears (1838) and Wounded Knee Massacre (1890), but that is too large a task at present, since the conflicts have been innumerable.
- is designed to demonstrate the policy of perpetual warfare, before, during, and after the cold war, and to elucidate some of the consistent causes and elements of that warfare.
- is designed to refresh or inform our memories.
- to include other conflicts and related events for context (many others are omitted)
1940s: US used 60,000 military personnel as human subjects to test chemical agents mustard gas and lewisite. During and after WWII, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects. In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing (typically) five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients who were thought either to be terminally ill or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years due either to age or chronic disease condition. The injections were made without the informed consent of those patients. At the Fernald school in Massachusetts, an institution for “feeble-minded” boys, 73 disabled children were fed oatmeal containing radioactive calcium and other radioisotopes. Immediately after World War II, 829 pregnant mothers in Tennessee received what they were told were “vitamin drinks” that would improve the health of their babies, but were, in fact, mixtures containing radioactive iron, to determine how fast the radioiosotope crossed into the placenta. Other incidents included an eighteen-year-old woman at an upstate New York hospital, expecting to be treated for a pituitary gland disorder, who was injected with plutonium. American orphanages were also allegedly used to conduct US government radiation experiments. In Japan, Unit 731, located near Harbin (Manchukuo), experimented with prisoner vivisection, dismemberment and induced epidemics on a very large scale from 1932 onward through the Second Sino-Japanese war. With the expansion of the empire during World War II, many other units were implemented in conquered cities such as Nanking (Unit 1644), Beijing (Unit 1855), Guangzhou (Unit 8604) and Singapore (Unit 9420). After the war, Supreme commander of occupation Douglas MacArthur gave immunity in the name of the United States to all members of the units in exchange for a tiny part of the results, so that in post-war Japan, Shiro Ishii and others continued to hold honoured positions. The United States blocked Soviet access to this information. However, some unit members were judged by the Soviets during the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. The effects were lasting and China is still working to counteract the effects of buried pathogen caches.
1941-1945. US Carpet bombing of German Cities to annihilate civilian targets. Napalm used.
1944 Vatican Ratline opens
1945 Croatian ratline opens
1945 US uses nuclear weapons against entire civilian populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing, ultimately more than 543,000 people, and causing untold displacement and impoverishment. Survivors had lost all family members, limbs, livelihood, all property and, generally, eventually suffered further agonizing physical after-effects. Two early critics of the bombings were Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard, who had together spurred the first bomb research in 1939 with a jointly written letter to President Roosevelt. Szilard, who had gone on to play a major role in the Manhattan Project, argued: “Let me say only this much to the moral issue involved: Suppose Germany had developed two bombs before we had any bombs. And suppose Germany had dropped one bomb, say, on Rochester and the other on Buffalo, and then having run out of bombs she would have lost the war. Can anyone doubt that we would then have defined the dropping of atomic bombs on cities as a war crime, and that we would have sentenced the Germans who were guilty of this crime to death at Nuremberg and hanged them?”
1946 Argentine Ratline opens. ODESSA founded.
1946 US conducts first known underwater test of a nuclear device. In November, Indian Prime Minister Nehru appeals to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would “save humanity from the ultimate disaster.”
1947 US Ratline opens
1947-1953 US Truman Doctrine – Policy of Containment
1947-2007. Kashmir conflict proceeds from partition of British India into India and Pakistan.
1945-1949 Chinese Civil War – Mao’s rise to power and unprecedent extermination of people (far more than Hitler and Stalin combined)
1945-1949 Indonesian National Revolution over declaration of independence from Netherlands(Dutch) colonial rule and internal conflict over communism.
1946-1949 Greek Civil War – Marxist attacks on non-Communist government. Communists abduct 30,000 children from Greek villages to be brought up under communist regimes. Atrocities on both sides.
1946-1954 First Indochina War – marxists launch rebellion against French colonial rule. Marxist nationalists are supported by the Allies against Vichy French, but continue fighting after that victory.
1947 Paraguayan Civil War – fascist dictatorship vs. marxist rebels
1947-1948 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 for control of Kashmir.
1947-1949 Palestinian Civil War and First Arab-Israeli War – Jewish and Muslim groups clash during withdrawal of British colonial power. Both sides had been trained by the British. A state of Israel established. U.S. declines to press Israel to allow expelled Palestinians to return.
1948 Costa Rican Civil War over election fraud. US placed military in readiness to invade if marxists groups began winning. 2,000 people died.
1948-1960 Malayan Emergency – guerilla war between marxist separatists and British colonial government. British conduct psyops against the marxists, designed to label them terrorists and bandits, and depersonalize them.
1948-2007. Internal conflict in Burma between Burmese government and various ethnic groups.
1949. CIA runs operation backing military coup deposing elected government of Syria.
1950. CIA begins MKULTRA program – conducts human tests without informing subjects and without consent. Related programs even tested daily dosage of LSD on children ( Project BLUEBIRD). Human experimentation and experimentation on the public were commonplace in some of these projects. Numerous unethical experiments on human subjects were conducted by other departments of US government as well as private researches until at least 1974.
1950-1953. Korean War. US uses napalm on North Korean targets. Bombing runs cause massive civilian casualties as well, on both sides.
1950-1951 invasion of Tibet by People’s Liberation Army, resulting in annexation of Tibet by marxist China.
1952-1955 Tunisian War of Independence – guerilla movement to resist French colonial rule.
1951-1969 US conducted tests of chemical and biological agents in open air at Dugway Proving Ground. According to the GAO, it is unknown how many humans, animals, and plants were exposed to bacteria and veriuses that cause disease.
1952-1960 Mau Mau Uprising – insurgency of Kenyan rebels against British colonial rule.
1953 Uprising of 1953 in East Germany – strike of construction workers in Berlin became widespread uprising against East German Government. Suppressed violently by Soviet tanks.
1953-1962 Eisenhower, Dulles, McCarthy, Khruschev, Escalation of the Cold War, increased policy of nuclear deterrent.
1953. CIA runs Operation TP-AJAX to depose elected government in Iran. Installs Shah, who inaugurates a reign of torture and repressive rule for 25 years.
1954. CIA runs Operation PBSUCCESS to overthrow elected government of Guatemalan, with genocidal results.
1954. Israel conducted Operation Susannah (Lavon Affair), bombing several American and British targets in false flag operations to frame Egypt and incite a war.
1954-1973 US conducts Operation Whitecoat – human experimentation using voluntary conscientious objectors from teh Seventh-day Adventist Church to test the effects of biological weapons. Initially volunteer enlisted men were used, but they were not informed abotu the potential dangers of the tests, which included exposure to various life-threatening diseases, and they staged a stidown strike. That’s when the Seventh Day Adventists were recruited, according to the Government Accountability Office.
1954 US scientists conducted fallout exposure research on the citizens of the Marshall Islands after the Castle Bravo nuclear test in Project 4.1. The Bravo test was detonated upwind of Rongelap Atoll and the residents were exposed to serious radiation levels, up to 180 rads. 236 Marshallese were exposed, some developed severe radiation sickness and one died, long term effects included birth defects, “jellyfish” babies, and thyroid problems.
1954-1962 Algerian War of Independence from French colonial rule. Both sides use torture and terrorist actions and massacres on civilians. French used systematic torture and justified it publicly in much the same way the US does currently. The French signed a secret military agreement with Argentina during this time, and French would train Argentine intelligence agents in systematic use of torture, block warden system, and other techniques employed in Battle of Algiers in 1957. The French military would run “death flights” causing the disappearance of Algerians by throwing them from helicopters into the sea.
1955-1972 First Sudanese Civil War in wake of end of British colonial rule and artificial boundaries created under that rule.
1955 US Congress authorizes President Eisenhower to use force to protect Formosa (Taiwan) from the People’s Republic of China.
1956-1957 Suez War (Second Arab-Israeli War) – US and Britain withdraw an offer to build Aswan Dam, Egypt nationalizes Suez Canal, so Britain, France, and Israel invade. The French use their secret relationship with Israel. The US eventually reverses support for its allies and pushes and end to the invasion through UN resolutions, in wake of Soviet threat to back Egypt (Kruschev) and perceived hypocrisy for criticizing Soviet repression of Hungary while not criticizing its allies’ similar actions.
1956 Hungarian Uprising against Soviets is initially successful, then crushed by Soviets.
1956-1959 Cuban Revolution (marxist)
1956 Poznań protests in Poland against Soviet government, pacified by Soviets.
1956-1968 Gehlen Organization operated.
1957-1958 Ifni War – series of armed incursions into Spanish (colonial) West Africa by Moroccan insurgents and indegenous peoples. Crushed by joint operations of French and Spanish airforces bringing massive air bombardment to bear.
1958. US occupies Beirut International Airport in Operation Blue Bat, under President Eisenhower. Lebanon Crisis.
1958-1987 Columbian Civil War
1959-1975 Second Indochina War (Vietnam War) – “cold war” conflict between US-backed and Soviet-backed parties. Agent Orange and other herbicides and defoliants were dropped by the US all over Vietnam (it had previously been used in the Korean war). Testing was done in Canada and those victims, too, have sued.
1959 Tibetan Rebellion
1960-1965 “Congo Crisis” – national independence from Belgium (colonial government) and seizing of power by Mobutu.
1960-1996 Guatemalan Civil War – marxists vs. government. Coup d’etat in 1982. Marxists conduct assassinations. Atrocities on both sides, but military government commited the lion’s share of massacres of civilians, summary executions, torture, disappearances. Most violent period, resulting in thousands of deaths of mostly unarmed indigenous civilians occured under brief presidency of Ríos Montt, whose position carried perceived support from the U.S. under President Reagan..
1960s-1970s. FBI runs Operation COINTELPRO to infiltrate and disrupt left-leaning groups in the US. Early 1960s sees unsuccessfully US attempts of assassination of Iraqi leader, Abdul Karim Qassim
1961 US left hundreds to face firing squads in Cuba, when it abandoned them in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
1961-1991 “Eritrean War of Independence”- marxist separatists eventually took control of Ethiopia.
1961-1974 Portuguese Colonial War to maintain control of Portugal’s colonial possessions in Africa. War in Angola, Guinea-Bissaua, Mozambique. Massacres of civilians and atrocities.
1961 Invasion of Goa – India annexed Goa, which had remained under Portugal’s colonial occupation when India became independent in 1947.
1962-1975 Laotian Civil War. Attack of marxist movement against the monarchy of Laos, resulting in marxist victory.
1962-1979 Detente in the Cold War
1962. US State Dept. planned (but did not execute) Operation Northwoods (false flag operation to hijack US plane and blame it on Cuba as pretext for invasion). Other false flag operations were planned.
1962 Sino-Indian War – China and India over disputed portion of Tibet.
1962 Indonesian Annexation of Western New Guinea via the New York Agreement brokered by US in secret – transfers sovereignty of Western New Guinea (without and over against the inhabitants’ consent) from (colonial government of) Netherlands to Indonesia. This was a plan by the US under President Kennedy to ensure that Indonesia did not seek Soviet support. Indonesia then immediately violated agreements and oppressed people of New Guinea by removing education, government systems, personal liberties, and forcing votes under threat of execution.
1962-1966 Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation – between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia over island of Borneo. Britain’s MI6 conducted psyops during this conflict to convince the world that the marxists were planning a massacre of Jakarta, and to discredit and unseat the Indonesian president (Sukarno). It has been claimed that the CIA and Kennedy had plans to assassinate Sukarno given the opportunity.
1962-1973 US conducts Project Shad – SHAD stands for Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, a series of Cold War-era tests by the U.S. military of biological weapons and chemical weapons. Exposures of uninformed and unwilling humans, including US servicemen, were conducted.
1962-1970 Yemen Civil War between monarchists and republicans.
1962-1975 Dhofar Rebellion between oppressed residents of the Dhofar province of Oman with funding by marxist China and Russia and the British backed Sultanate fo this British semi-colony.
1963 Kennedy Assassination. US provides names to communists to murder to Iraqi Ba’ath party.
1963 Sand War – Moroccan attempt to reclaim areas annexed to French Algeria under French colonial rule.
1963-1967 Shifta War – secessionist conflict – Somali people in a district of Kenya attempting to join with their co-ethnics in a Greater Somalia. “Shifta” means “bandit” and was a propaganda term of the Kenyan government for the rebels.
1964-2007. Ongoing insurgencies in Columbia by two marxist guerilla groups.
1964. US fakes North Vietnamese naval attacks in Gulf of Tonkin Incident to provide pretext for escalation of US involvement under President Johnson.
1965-1975. US drops 15 million tons of munitions on Viet Nam. Napalm, massacres, torture, punctuated by My Lai (Song My) Massacre (1968). “He fired at it [the baby] with a .45. He missed. We all laughed. He got up three or four feet closer and missed again. We laughed. Then he got up right on top and plugged him.” (Report of the Dept. of the Army Review).
1965 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 – ongoing conflict over Kashmir. Thousands of deaths. Dominican Civil War.
1965-1989 South African Border War – between South Africa and allies against marxists with Soviet and Cuban support. South Africa administered, from a League of Nations mandate, the territory formerly held by German colonial government until WWI. South Africa had refused to surrender it’s mandate for the territory to a UN Trusteeship after WWII.
1966-1988 Namibian War of Independence – marxist organization and others fought against South Africa.
1966-1979 Second Chimurenga (Rhodesian Bush War) against British colonial Zimbabwe Rhodesia – brings universal suffrage, an end to white rule, and creation of Republic of Zimbabwe.
1967-1975 Cambodian Civil War. Insurrection of the marxist Khmer Rouge against the Cambodian government. The Khmer Rouge would triumph using mass starvation, atrocities, and destruction of the economy.
1967. US under President Johnson repositions the US 6th fleet to defend Israel in the Six Day War (Third Arab-Israeli War), but did not intervene under Soviet threats of war. The US and British, however, secretly supplied arms to Israel. Campaign of Israeli soldiers massacring unarmed Egyptian soldiers. At least once incident is said to number 1000 prisoners. US blocks efforts in Security Council to enforce resolution calling for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in the 1967 war.
1967. US supports coup d’etat and rise to power of fascist military junta in Greece.
1967 Chola Incident – day long conflict between India and China over disputed portion of Tibet.
1967-1970 Nigerian Civil War – attempted secession of parts of Nigeria.
1967-1970 US supports Israel in War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt/USSR/PLO. In 1970 civil war between Jordan and PLO. Israel and U.S. prepare to intervene on side of Jordan if Syria backs PLO.
1967-1989 Second Malayan Emergency – insurgency by Mayalan Communist Party against Malaysian armed forces.
1968 Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia
1968-1970 War of Attrition
1968 Viet Cong attack US Embassy in Saigon. Gold reserve requirement to back US currency is repealed. US and South Vietnamese launch Operation Sealords in Mekong Delta. DOD announces US will send 24,000 troops back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours. My Lai Massacre.
1967-2007. Marxist conflict begins in Phillipines, launched by organization New People’s Army. Simultaneous Islamic insurgency (as of 1969) is ongoing from the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.
1969 Football War between El Salvador and Honduras.
1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict between Soviets and China.
1969-1994 The Troubles in Northern Ireland. Atrocities are well known.
1969 US National Guard helicopters spray skin-stinking powder on anti-war protestors in California. Salt I talks. Draft lottery begins in December. Reportedly first strain of HIV migrates to US via Haiti. US begins the Vietnamization of the war.
1970s. CIA helped overthrow Chile’s elected leader, paving way for brutal Pinochet dictatorship.
STRATEGY OF TENSION
1970s-1980s. “Strategy of Tension” conducted by Italy: Wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy_of_tension leads article with basic definition: (Italian: strategia della tensione) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false flag terrorist actions (including bombings). According to historian Daniele Ganser, “It is a tactic which consists in committing bombings and attributing them to others. By the term ‘tension’ one refers to emotional tension, to what creates a sentiment of fear. By the term ‘strategy’ one refers to what feeds the fear of the people towards one particular group.”
1970 US Senate repeals Gulf of Tonkin resolution. US Operation Jefferson Glenn in Viet Nam begins. Supreme Court refuses to hear case by state of Mass. on constitutionality of state law granting residents right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War between East and West Pakistan leading to Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Included Operation Blitz and Operation Searchlight, massive “pacification” capaigns by Pakistan Army to curb Bengali nationalist movement in East Pakistan. Up to 3million lost their lives in Operation Searchlight. Idi Amin takes power in Uganda.
1971 US returns control of Okinawa to Japan.
1972 Libya-Sudan conflict – Sudan aligning with Western powers, Libya under Gaddafi with Islamic ones. Began with coup d’etat in 1969 in Sudan and rise of Gaddafi through coup d’etat in Libya.
1972 US launches the first Earth-resources satellite. Racial brawl breaks out onboard USS Kitty Hawk on way to Gulf of Tonkin. 100 sailors involved, 50 injured.
1972 US blocks Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat’s efforts to reach a peace agreement with Israel.
1973 US provides supplies to Israel for Yom Kippur War (Fourth Arab-Israeli War). While Israeli policy was for a preemptive attack in the face of imminent war, they held back until Egypt and Syria (with Soviet support) attacked, in order to ensure US support.
1973-1991 Western Sahara War – Sahrawi insurgency against Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania for independence of former Spanish colony of Western Sahara. Morocco continues to occupy the area.
1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising – popular upgrising against facist military junta of Greece, crushed by Greek military with tank crashing the Polytechnic. OPEC oil crisis in the same year. The Greek Junta had come to power in a military coup d’etat in 1967 and was condemned by the whole of Europe but supported by the US.
1973-75: U.S. supports Kurdish rebels in Iraq. When Iran reaches an agreement with Iraq in 1975 and seals the border, Iraq slaughters Kurds and U.S. denies them refuge. Kissinger secretly explains that “covert action should not be confused with missionary work.”
1974 Turkish Invasion of Cyprus is repsonse to Athens-orchestrated coup d’etat by the Cypriot National Guard against the Orthodox primate and president there. Turkey invades. Displacement of 210,000 people. The Turks then prevented Cypriot refugees from returning to their homes and conducted a campaign of ethnic resettlement, bringing in Turks from Anatolia to occupy the homes of Greek Cypriots. More than 1500 Greek Cypriots are missing. Mosques and ancient Orthodox churches have been destroyed or looted of ancient icons and Byzantine mosaics as well. The legal and political conflict continues through today.
1974-2002 Angolan Civil War began with end of Portuguese colonial rule, and was conducted between Soviet-backed marxists, US assisted anti-marxist nationalist groups, and separatist groups. Half a million were killed.
1975-2000. CIA launches the “Secret War” in Laos, organizing hill tribes to attack Viet Cong supply lines. This launched an ongoing campaign of retaliation lasting to this day by the People’s Army against the Hmong as representative of the participating hill tribes, to include forced reeducation and concentration camps, and continued military actions against them.
1975-1991 Ethiopian Civil War – began when marxist military junta staged coup d’etat against emperor Haile Selassie. Up to seven million died in draught and famine partly linked to devastation and marxist redistribution of wealth.
1975-1991 Lebanese Civil War. Karantina Massacre (1976) Christian miliia kill 1000 people. Damour massacre (1976) in retaliation – PLO kills 500 unarmed Christian inhabitants of Damour. Massacre of 2000 Palestinians in Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp by Christian militias. Sabra-Shatila massacres (1982) – Christian militia murder 800 unarmed Palestinian refugees (another figure is 700-3000).
1975-1978 US backed Indonesian invasion of East Timor. The Indonesians used almost entirely US-supplied weapons and equipment. The conflict occured in the wake of a Portuguese (colonial) military mounted coup d’etat against the fascist government in Lisbon, and the announcement of divesting Portugal from its colonies. Indonesia had been a colony of the Netherlands (The Dutch East Indies) and set its sights on invasion. US support under President Ford and Henry Kissinger was covert but substantial (i.e. included jets and special forces training).US media barely covered the invasion, and attributed the death toll to the preceding civil war.
1975-1998 East Timorese War of Independence – this is an ongoing struggle against Indonesian imperialism that resulted in autonomy for East Timor.
1975-2006 Independence War in Cabinda – this was a war of multiple separatist movements against Portuguese colonial control
1975-1989 Cambodian-Vietnamese War. Viet Nam invades Cambodia to remove marxist Khmer Rouge from power.
1975 the US supported, via Secretary of State Kissinger, Iranian attack on Iraq over the Shatt al-Arab waterway at the head of the Persian Gulf – an important channel for oil exports of both countries. Iraq made concessions.
1975: U.S. vetoes Security Council resolution condemning Israeli attacks on Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon.
US INVOLVEMENT IN OPERATION CONDOR
1976-1983 c/o Operation Condor, the US trained Argentina’s fascist government, on the heels of French training, for Argentina’s “Dirty War” – a state-sponsored war against Argentine citizenry, and aimed officially at wiping out marxist insurgency but directed primarily at non-combatants who had nothing to do with war or warfare and didn’t consider themselves involved in a war. Methods trained by the US and French inlcuded terrorism, kidnappings, “forced disappearances”, concentration camps, and torture and assassination of trade unionists, students, and activists. The “Annihillation Decree” (1975) of Isabel Peron authorized all necessary means to annihilate subversive elements. Death squads utilized the hunt for marxists as a pretext to exterminate any and all ideological opponents on the left and as a cover for common crimes. The military junta called this the “National Reorganization Process”. Up to 30,000 people were “disappeared” during this time, not counting the work of death squads in mass killings. Appropriation of newborns from their imprisoned mothers was also conducted. The operations were part of Operation Condor (1975) – clandestine campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations conducted jointly by intelligence and security forces of members nations with U.S. support, namely the military governments in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil, with Ecuador and Peru joining later in more peripheral roles. In 1976, one of the generals predicted, “;We are going to have to kill 50,000 people: 25,000 subversives, 20,000 sympathizers, and we will make 5,000 mistakes.” In 1982, the military junta, counting on US support, would invade the Falklands, and be defeated by the British under Thatcher. The overall strategy of Operation Condor can be compared to the “Strategy of Tension” in Italy in the 1970s-1980s and to the rise of the security state in the US, as expressed most visibly in its use of torture, secret offshore prisons, global psyops and surveillance, continual abuse of executive priviledge and widespread propaganda, surveillance, and rights violations among its own citizens. Henry Kissinger, a kind of predecessor to Rumsfeld and Cheney, presided over several presidencies in the support of Argentinian “national security policies” and Operation Condor.
1977-2002 US supported RENAMO – an anti-marxist organization that utilized massacres aimed at civilians and followed a policy of using child soldiers to attempt overthrow of the marxist government in post colonial Mozambique.
1977 Libyan-Egyptian War – short-term border war
1977-1978 US Supported Somalia in the Ogaden War – between Somalia and Ethiopia over Ogaden region which Somalia invaded as part of a “Greater Somalia” policy. For a while, the USSR was supplying both sides, but this was discovered and Somalia expelled all Soviet citizens. The Soviet Union switched from supplying aid to Somalia to supporting solely Ethiopia, which had previously been backed by the United States, prompting the U.S. to likewise start supporting Somalia. China and Ceausescu in Romania continued to support Somalia. The US adoped Somalia as a cold war client state (colony) in exchange for use of Somali bases.
1978 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon.
1978-1979 Uganda-Tanzania War – resulted in overthrow of Idi Amin’s regime.
1978-1987 US and France supplied Chad in Chadian-Libyan conflict with Gaddafi.
1978-1989 military coup d’etat led by communist parties in Afghanistan – Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan – resisted by Mujahideen until Soviet Withdrawal. US is funding Mujahideen under Carter and Reagan.
1978-79: Iranians begin demonstrations against the Shah. U.S. tells Shah it supports him “without reservation” and urges him to act forcefully. Until the last minute, U.S. tries to organize military coup to save the Shah, but to no avail.
1979-1985 “Second Cold War” – President Reagan is elected in 1980 and vows to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere. Reagan installs cruise missiles in Europe, begins Strategic Defense Initiative to weaponise space. Beginning of Reagan’s ‘covert wars’.
1979. Third Indochina War (Sino-Vietnamese War) – China invades North Vietnam.
1979-1982. CIA provided support for Turkish military coup d’etat followed by US financial aid to the new government under President Carter.
1979-88: U.S. begins covert aid to Mujahideen in Afghanistan six months before Soviet invasion in Dec. 1979. Over the next decade U.S. provides training and more than $3 billion in arms and aid.
1979-1982 First Chadian Civil War
1980s-1990s. CIA operatives minded Nicaragua’s main harbor. US Army courses for Latin American soldiers included torture. ICIA agents created a right-wing group in Haiti that killed hundreds of civilians. The apparatus was set up up to give the US president the ability to run “off the shelf” intelligence operations separate from the US national security apparatus – first known act was to illegal sell arms to Iran and illegally use proceed to fund the Contras in Iraq).
1980-1992 US trained El Salvador’s military to suppress insurgents in Salvadoran Civil War (it is now known that this included training in torture, assassination, and operations against civilians) and provided $7billion/year in support beginning under President Carter, continuing under President Reagan, and then under President Bush.. The Salvadoran government conducted a reign of terror on civilians that included death squads, disappearnces, rape, murder, and atrocities. The Reagan administration helped conceal some of these atrocities and targeted US critics.
1980-2000 Internal conflict in Peru between governmetn, Shining Path, and revolutionary movements. 70,000 die.
US INVOLVEMENT IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR
1980-1988 US and France support Saddam Hussein and Iraq in Iran-Iraq War.
When Iraq invades Iran, the U.S. opposes any Security Council action to condemn the invasion. U.S. soon removes Iraq from its list of nations supporting terrorism and allows U.S. arms to be transferred to Iraq. At the same time, U.S. lets Israel provide arms to Iran and in 1985 U.S. provides arms directly (though secretly) to Iran.
Iraq uses chemical warfare against Iran and conducts “wars of the cities” against Iranian towns, including Tehran. According to Iraq’s report to the UN, the technology for developing chemical weapons was obtained from the US, West German, UK, France, and China. The Weapons Declaration revealed a list of Eastern and Western corporations, companies, and individuals that exported chemical precursors to Iraq, including VX, Sarin, and mustard gas precursors. More than half of equipment used in production of chemical weapons came from a US firm via a German company, and the remainder mostly from France, Spain, and Austria, while delivery munitions were obtained from Italy, SPain, china, and Egypt. The US had confirmed as early as 1983 that Iraq ws using chemical weapons against Iran almost daily. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld met with Saddam Hussein on the same day that the UN would release a report announcing Iraq’s use of tabun nerve agent and mustard gas, and the US would pronounce it is “satisfied with Iraq” and say that normal diplomatic ties have been established in “all but name”. In 1984, the CIA began to secretly provide intelligence to Iraq for calibrating mustard gas attacks on Iranian troops. Starting in 1985, the US provided satellite photography over 18-months to assist with Iraqi bombing raids. 31 Bell helicopters given to Iraq by the US were used to spray chemical weapons. An extended list of international companies involved was published in 2003 in The Independent. German companies assisted by, among other things, building a chemica weapons facility in Iraq disguised as a pesticide plant, as well as five large research laboratories, and administrative building, and eight large underground bunkers for storage of chemical munitions, as well as the first production buildings. Germany also supplied reactors, heat exchangers, condensors, and vessels, along with France, Austria, Canada, and Spain, which were used for large-scale production of mustard, Tabun, and Sarin. The Al Haddad trading company of Tennessee delivered 60 tons of a chemical used to make Sarin, and the US firm Alcolac International provided a mustard-gas precursor to both Iran and Iraq, but the Justice Department indited the company only for its exports to Iran and not to Iraq, for which it paid a fine. The US also sent 70 shipments of Anthrax Bacillus and other biological agents to Iraqi government agencies over three years, and these were identical to the microorganisms UN inspectors found and recovered from the Iraqi biological warfare program. A US Senate Banking Committee report noted that these “were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction.” Twenty-four US firms we involved in exporting arms and materials. UN inspectors identified US manufactured items that had been exported from the US to Iraq under Department of Commerce issued licenses that were used to further Iraq’s chemcial and nuclear weapons development and missile delivery systems development. The executive branch of the US government approved 771 export licenses for sale of dual-use technology in Iraq. In 1981, both countries began attacking oil tankers and merchant ships, including thos of netural nations, to deprive each other of trade. US escalates support for Iraq, including intelligence, economic aid, weapons, and normalized realtions. President Reagan said the US “would do whatever was necessary to prevent Iraq from losing the war with Iran.” and issued a National Security Decision Directive to this effect. In response to an appeal from Kuwait, the US agreed to provide naval protection for tankers flying the US flag. An Iraqi plane attacked a US frigate, killing 37 and injurng 21, but this was ignored. In 1987, the US attacked Iranian oil platforms in retaliation for an Iranian attack on a US-flagged Kuwaiti tanker. This was Operation Nimble Archer. In 1988, a US frigate was damaged by an Iranian mine, and the US retaliated with Operation Praying Mantis, destroying two oil platforms, two ships, and two gunboats. The US Navy shot down Iran Air Flight 655 (a civilian airliner), killing 290 passengers and crew, claiming they had mistaken it for an Iranian F-14 Tomcat, though evidence (and reason) makes that unlikely. The US would eventually pay $131.8 million in compensation, but never apologize. The Iraq-gate scandal revealed that billions of dollars was funnelled illegally through the US to arm Iraq. BNL, Italy’s largest bank, relying on US government-guaranteed (taxpayer-guaranteed) loans was funding Iraqi chemical and nuclear weapons work through its Atlanta branch, which would later be raided by the FBI. Among the companies shipping militaryily useful technology to Iraq under US government supervision were Hewlett-Packaard, Tektronix, and Matrix Churchill. 100,000 Iranian victims of Iraq’s chemical weapons are estimated during the eight-year war, but this does not inlcude the civilian population or account for the ongoing bloog, lung, and skin complications and birth defects that result. Naturally, all of this is forbidden by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, although the US is the only member who voted against the issuance of that statement. The Reagan administration continued aiding Iraq even after Iraq began using chemical warfare on Kurdish civilians. In fact, despite the amazing and obviously trumped up claim of a connection between Bath-controlled Iraq and Osama bin Laden, there is immense resentment of the US in the Muslim world for precisely this support of the Bathists and their use of chemical warfare.
1981-1986: Beginning of US operations against Libya. U.S. holds military maneuvers off the coast of Libya in waters claimed by Libya with the clear purpose of provoking Qaddafi. In 1981, a Libyan plane fires a missile and two Libyan planes shot down. In 1986, Libya fires missiles that land far from any target and U.S. attacks Libyan patrol boats, killing 72, and shore installations. When a bomb goes off in a Berlin nightclub, killing two Americans, the U.S. charges that Qaddafi was behind it (possibly true) and conducts major bombing raids in Libya, killing dozens of civilians, including Qaddafi’s adopted daughter.
1981 Paquisha War – brief conflict between Ecuador and Peru over control of watchposts in disputed border area
1981-1986 Ugandan Bush War between groups that had helped the Tanzanian army against Idi Amin. Massacres and atrocities by were conducted by the very survivors of Amin’s genocidal purges. Landmines were used against civilians, and child soldiers were utilized.
1981. US reguses to sign protocol III of UN Convention restricting use of incendiary weapons such as napalm and white phosphorous on civilian targets.
1982 Falklands War (see 1976-1983 above). One additional note. The British actually deployed tactical nuclear weapons during the Falklands War, but there is no evidence that they decided to launch them.
1982 Israeli Invasion of Lebanon – see also 1978. U.S. gives “green light” to Israeli invasion of Lebanon, killing some 17 thousand civilians. U.S. chooses not to invoke its laws prohibiting Israeli use of U.S. weapons except in self-defense. U.S. vetoes several Security Council resolutions condemning the invasion.
1983: U.S. troops sent to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force; intervene on one side of a civil war, including bombardment by USS New Jersey. Withdraw after suicide bombing of marine barracks.
1983 U.S. Invasion of Grenada under President Reagan (Operation Urgent Fury) in wake of marxist coup.. This occurs 2 days after the Beirut Barracks bombing. Even Thatcher expressed opposition and concern over the invasion; her Foreign Minister at that time, as well as Reagan, claimed on the day before the invasion, that no such invasion was being contemplated.
1983-2007. Sri Lankan Civil War launched by separatist Liberation Tigers.
1983-2005 Second Sudanese Civil War – extension fo the first one of 1955-1972. 1.9million civilians killed and 4-million displaced. The conflict continues in the wake of British colonial withdrawal. Soviets and China have been main suppliers, although the US began selling Sudan a great deal of equipment around 1976, hoping to counteract Soviet support of Marxist Ethiopians and Libyans. Military asssitannce was cancelled in 1987, after being reduced with the start of the second civil war in 1983.
1984: U.S.-backed rebels in Afghanistan fire on civilian airliner.
1984-2007. Start of insurrection by marxist and Kurdish nationalist/separatist organization Kurdistan Workers Party. Turkish army response has been brutal, repressive, and genocidal.
1984-2007 (ongoing) Free Papua Movement in resistance to New York Agreement (see 1962)
1984 Siachin War – preemptive attack by India on Pakistan to capture Siachen Glacier in the disputed Kashmir region.
1985 Agacher Strip War – conflict over natural gas and minearl resources in Burkina Faso.
1985-1991 End of Cold War
1985 Israeli air force bombs PLO Headquarters near Tunis.
1986. Somali Civil War begins with insurrections against repressive regime of US-supported Siad Barre, who had switched allegiances from USSR.
1987. Black Monday stock market crash.
1987-2007. Civil War in Uganda, prompted by marxist organization The Lord’s Resistance Army, led by a self-proclaimed “spirit medium” and ethnic supremacist.
1987-1993 First Intifada – mass uprising against Israeli occupation that began in Jabalia refugee camp and spread to Gaza, West Bank, and East Jerusalem. U.S. arms used by Israel to repress first Palestinian Intifada. U.S. vetoes five Security Council resolution condemning Israeli repression.
1988-1994 Nagorno-Karabakh war – Armenian and Azerbaijani conflict escalates in wake of dissolution of Soviet empire. Armenian and Azeri forces engaged in ethnic cleansing upon civilian populations – notably the Maraghar Massacre (1992), the Khojaly Massacre against Azerbaijani civilians by Armenians (1992), the Kirovabad pogrom against Armenians by the Azeri (1988), Sumgait pogrom against Armenians by the Azeri (1988). Asjerbaijan also conducted aerial bombing in densely populated civilian areas.
1988: Saddam Hussein kills many thousands of his own Kurdish population and uses chemical weapons against them. The U.S. increases its economic ties to Iraq. U.S. vetoes 3 Security Council resolutions condemning continuing Israeli occupation of and repression in Lebanon.
1988 US House rejects President Reagan’s request for funds to support Nicaraguan Contras. Iran-Contra affair exposed in March. Pakistan and India conduct nuclear testing. US cruise missile attacks in wake of embassy bombings. al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum is wrongly destroyed.
1989-1991 Mauritania-Senegal Border War. Mauritanian border guards shot two Senegalese peasants in a dispute over grazing rights. Civilians were the primary casualties and displacement was high.
1989-1992 US conducted operations to cause the downfall of the Afghan government in the wake of Soviet withdrawal, in conjunction with Pakistan’s operations supporting the mujahideen. Pakistan (under Benazir Bhutto – assassinated 2007) wanted a fundamentalist-dominated government in Afghanistan. Cluster bombs were used intensively as part of the US tactic to demoralize the enemy.
1989-1996 First Liberian Civil War – President Doe had taken power in a popular coup in 1980. He was captured, tortured, and executed on video. During the war 200,000 Liberians were killed, a million were displaced into refugee camps. Child soldiers committed atrocities, raping and murdering people of all ages in a campaign of ethnic cleansing.
1989 Romanian Revolution – overthrows regime of Ceausescu. The US had supported Ceausescu: President Nixon had visited Romania and “most favored nation” trading status was granted in 1975. Ceausescu had divergent views from the Soviets) and President Bush had called him a “good communist”. US support, covert and overt had helped keep him in power. Incongruously, Bush was one of theose who sent messages of support after Ceausescu’s fall.
1989-1990. US invasion of Panama. (Operation Just Cause) in violation of its agreement under the OAS Charter (1948), prohibiting signatories from invading one another for any reason. Chapter II, Article 3(f) of the Charter of the Organization of American States provides, in relevant part, that: “Every State has the right to choose, without external interference, its political, economic, and social system and to organize itself in the way best suited to it, and has the duty to abstain from intervening in the affairs of another State.”Under the U.S. Constitution, Article VI, treaties ratified by the U.S. are among the supreme law of the land of the U.S. Civilian death toll 3-4,000 and displaced more than 15,000. Two weeks of looting and destruction of property followed the invasion.
1989-1992 Phase two of civil war in Afghanistan. Soviets have withdrawn but continue funding the marxist Afghan government.
1990-1991. US, in Persian Gulf War on Iraq uses napalm, white phosphorus, and other incendiary weapons, as well as weapons of mass destruction (FAEs) and Blue-82s, etc, as well as making water supplies undrinkable for generations, and birth defects skyrocket for generations, by using depleted uranium (also banned under international law). “We napalmed both those (bridge) approaches,” said Col. Randolph Alles in a recent interview. “Unfortunately, there were people there because you could see them in the (cockpit) video.” (…) “They were Iraqi soldiers there. It’s no great way to die,” he added. (…) The generals love napalm. … It has a big psychological effect.” (San Diego Union Tribune)
[U.S. rejects any diplomatic settlement of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (for example, rebuffing any attempt to link the two regional occupations, of Kuwait and of Palestine). U.S. leads international coalition in war against Iraq. Civilian infrastructure targeted. To promote “stability” U.S. refuses to aid post-war uprisings by Shi’ites in the south and Kurds in the north, denying the rebels access to captured Iraqi weapons and refusing to prohibit Iraqi helicopter flights. Devastating economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. U.S. and Britain block all attempts to lift them. Hundreds of thousands die. Though Security Council had stated that sanctions were to be lifted once Saddam Hussein’s programs to develop weapons of mass destruction were ended, Washington makes it known that the sanctions would remain as long as Saddam remains in power. Sanctions in fact strengthen Saddam’s position. Asked about the horrendous human consequences of the sanctions, Madeleine Albright (U.S. ambassador to the UN and later Secretary of State) declares that “the price is worth it.”]
1990-1998 First Tuareg Rebellion in Mali and Niger.
1990s-2007 conflict in Niger delta over tensions between foreign oil corporations and minority ethnic groups. Nigerian police commit serious human rights abuses, perpetuating devastating cycle of increasing violence.
1991 Ten-Day War between Slovenia and Yugoslavia resulting in separate Slovenian state. Evidence that Slovenia shot surrendering Yugoslav soliders under a white flag.
1991-1995 Croatian War to separate from Yugoslavia.
1991-2002 Islamic rebel groups go to war with post-imperial revolutionary government in Algeria. The GAI commits massacres of all ages and mass rapes, Army bases stationed a few hundred meters from the villages did nothing to intervene. Refugees claim Algerian army committed some of the massacres. Minor US aid to Algerian military began after 2001. Numerous rebels received amnesty by the 2004 government. Simultaneously for same 11-year period attacks on Sierra Leone by an independent rebel army (RUF) – grave atrocities – including hacking off the limbs of thousands of children so they could not grow rice. Mass rape, extermination, conscripting children, enslavement, and other such crimes were committed.
1991-1992. Ossetian ethnic group launches campaign of ethnic cleansing, mass rape, kidnapping against displaced Ingush people who had been separated from their properties and lands by Russia. Massacres of Ingush civilians. War in South Ossetia between Georgia, with Russian backing, and Ossetian militants. Both sides targeted civilians. 80,000 refugees. War was started in Togo during the same period.
1992. Ruby Ridge massacre. War of Transnistria (Moldova and Russia).
1992-1995 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Simultaneous Civil War in Tajikistan, likewise 5-years long, likewise with ethnic cleansing.
1992-1996 Third phase of Civil War in Afghanistan, ending in Taliban rule.
1992-2003. US begins Operation Southern Watch, w. stated purpose of ensuring Iraq’s compliance with UN resolutions. No-fly zones were not mentioned by the UN (Boutros-Ghali would later call them “illegal” after his tenure) but were created and enforced, however, by the US.
1992-1994 War in Abkhazia between Georgian governmetn and Abkhaz separatists. Ethnic cleansing by Abkhaz militias.
1993 Publication of Huntington’s “The Clash of Civilizations” outlines emerging alignments which are coming into conflict: “It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation-states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future.”
- The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion, but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact, non-Westerners never do. p.51.
- Hypocrisy, double standards, and “but nots” are the price of universalist pretensions. Democracy is promoted, but not if it brings Islamic fundamentalists to power; nonproliferation is preached for Iran and Iraq, but not for Israel; free trade is the elixir of economic growth, but not for agriculture; human rights are an issue for China, but not with Saudi Arabia; aggression against oil-owning Kuwaitis is massively repulsed, but not against non-oil-owning Bosnians. Double standards in practice are the unavoidable price of universal standards of principle. p.184.
- In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous . . . Imperialism is the necessary logical consequence of universalism. p.310.
- Islam’s borders are bloody and so are its innards. The fundamental problem for the West is not Islamic fundamentalism. It is Islam, a different civilisation whose people are convinced of the superiority of their culture and are obsessed with the inferiority of their power —— “The Clash of Civilisations?”, original 1993 article in “Foreign Affairs” magazine.
1993. First World Trade Center Bombing. Destruction of Waco Branch Davidian compound.
1993-1995. US occupies Somalia under UN auspices. Conducts Battle of Mogadishu (1993).
1993-2007. Ongoing ethnic conflict in Nagaland, India, prompted by Marxist ideology.
1993-2007 Burundi Civil War. Hutu and Tutsi.
1993-: U.S. launches missile attack on Iraq, claiming self-defense against an alleged assassination attempt on former president Bush two months earlier.
1994-1996 First Chechen War – Chennya wins de facto independence. 80,000-100,000 killed, 500,000 displaced.
1994. Genocide of 800,000 Tutsis by Hutus in Rwanda, prompted by Marxist ideology. US blocks UN intervention. Hutus flee to Congo.
1995 Turkey launches Operation Steel against Kurdistan Workers Party in Northern Iraq.
1995. OKC bombing.
1996-1997. First Congo War. Mobutu, backed by US as bulwark against Communism, is overthrown in wake of his support for Hutu fleeing Rwanda. The Hutu feared reprisals from the Tutsis they’d committed genocide against, and now set up camps in eastern Zaire, from which they continued attacking Tutsis in the area and in Rwanda. They
1996-1999. Conflict between Serbian/Yugoslav army and ethnic Albanian KLA, a terrorist organization responsible for more than 10,000 deaths of both Serbs and Albanians.
1997 Turkey launched Operation Hammer against Kurdistan Workers Party in Northern Iraq. ASEAN Tigers collapse.
1997-2007. US does not participate in international accord to ban landmines (Ottawa Treaty).
1998. Ethnic Georgians launch insurgency against Abkhaz secessionist movement (Six Day War of Abkhazia).
1998: U.S. and U.K. bomb Iraq over the issue of weapons inspections, even though Security Council is just then meeting to discuss the matter.
1998: U.S. (under President Clinton) destroys factory producing half of Sudan’s pharmaceutical supply, claiming retaliation for attacks on U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and that factory was involved in chemical warfare. U.S. later acknowledges lack of evidence for the chemical warfare charge.
1999. US-led bombing of Serbia poisons the primary water supply and sets up birth defects for generations to come. Cluster bombs used in crowded market areas against civilian populations during busiest times. Hospitals and refugee camps bombed. US cooperates with KLA, muslim terrorist organization with significant relationship with Osama bin Laden. Russia invades Chechnya. Brutality, weapons, and techniques are well known. Kargill conflict between India and Pakistan.
2000-2007. Islamic insurgency in Saudi Arabia.
2000-: Israel uses U.S. arms in attempt to crush Palestinian uprising, killing hundreds of civilians.
2001. US invasion and occupation of Afghanistan, following destruction of World Trade Center buildings, blamed on Osama bin Laden. Civilians consistently targeted. Ethnic Albanian organization NLA enters into armed conflict with Macedonia.
2002. US begins Operation Southern Focus, intensifying bombings of air defense artillary installations and military complex in Iraq in reponse to violations of no-fly zones, as well as increased intelligence gathering. It was a “softening up” prior to the 2003 invasion, aimed at degrading Iraq’s air defenses and communications. The tonnage of bombs dropped increased from 0 in March 2002 and 0.3 in April 2002 to between 7 and 14 tons per month in May-August, reaching a pre-war peak of 54.6 tons in September – prior to Congress’ 11 October authorisation of the invasion. The September attacks included a 5 September 100-aircraft attack on the main air defence site in western Iraq. According to New Statesman this was “Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias, it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected.”
2002. US and UN intervene to stop Second Liberian Civil War.
2003. US invasion and occupation of Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom). Massive operations targeting civilians. Same depleted uranium shells and other weapons of mass destruction used. US uses pretexts of weapons of mass destruction and connection to Osama bin Ladin as official motivations for invasion. Objectives stated by Bush and Blair were to disarm Iraq of WMDs, end Hussein’s rule, and liberate Iraq. More than 60,000 civilians had been killed as of April 2007, while a refugee crisis, starvation, and other aspects of displacement have been results. Johns Hopkins numbers deaths as of 2006 from 655,000-1.22million.
2003-2007. Darfur Conflict in Sudan – well known genocide, war-crimes, mass starvation, mass rape, orphaned children, and displacement.
2004-2007. War in Waziristan between Pakistani Army and indigenous Waziri tribes reportedly “allied” with Taliban and al-Qaeda – began as part of Paki search for al-Qaeda members in mountainous Waziristan area. Pakistan is likewise engaged in conflict with the Baloch tribal people, who are an oppressed minority there. Bombings, etc, are ongoing, and may be blamed on “al-Qaeda.”
2004. Beslan school hostage crisis (Chechen separatists take 1200 schoolchildren and adults hostage in Beslan).
2004 US lifts ban from Libya.
2005-2007. Sudan. War in Chad begins. Thai senators (2005) accuse US of being behind bombings in support of an insurgency in South Thailand resulting in 2500 deaths. Military coup (2006) in Thailand. Insurgency continues. As of 2005, the US has military bases in more than 36 nations.
2006. US involved in the “July War” – rushing unprecedented aid to Israel against Lebanon. Hezbollah uses unguided rockets. Israel uses cluster bombs on civilian targets, leaving as many as 1000 unexploded bomblets on the ground. Both sides use heavy targeting of civilian areas. Simultaneous conflict between Fatah and Hamas in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Mexican Drug War launched between rival drug cartels and government forces in Mexico. Over 2000 deaths. Launch of “immigration issue” as priority in US political debate.
2007. US conducts airstrikes against Islamist positions in Somalia, under pretext of eliminating embedded Al Qaeda operatives. CIA remains on the ground with Somali and Ethiopian forces since outset of that war. At same time, somalis are heavily involved in Ogaden conflict in Ethiopia that began with attack on Chinest oil fields. At same time a Second Tuareg Rebellion has begun in Nigeria, with involvement of a special forces unit trained by the US Military to conduct anti-terrorist operations in 2003-06. In response to an ongoing insurgency in Congo (2004-present) US pledges support fo Congolese forces.
If you didn’t already, you should at least examine the following three entries on the timeline:
- 1970s-1980s. “Strategy of Tension”
- 1976-1983 c/o Operation Condor
- 1980-1988 US and France support Saddam Hussein
During this 66-year time period (and indeed prior to that), all world governments utilized torture and concerted warfare on civilians (one of the policies the Nazis taught the world), and most engaged in atrocities, and human rights violations – i.e. have engaged, down to the present day. Governments that have had the opportunity, have been involved directly or indirectly in the use of chemical weapons, biological and weapons of mass destruction, incendiary and anti-civilian weapons such as cluster bombs. The period is typified by covert activity as the norm, including psyops, the “strategy of tension”, false flag operations – framing other groups – as pretexts for war or atrocities, and historical revisionism to erase crimes, blame victims, and maintain ideological support. The primary themes of the period were nationalist/separatist movements vs. collapsing colonial boundaries and administrations, Marxism’s ideology of “class struggle” between ethnic minorities, ideologies of revolution that have their origins in Western Europe but which are much older than Marxism, and a global policy of manipulation, interference, and domination by the US in a struggle to remake the global map for hegemony, especially in competition with Marxism.
Causes of War since WWII.
- Effects of Imperialism
- Marxist ideology
- Revolutionary ideology
- Cold War imperialism and ideology
- U.S. covert action, foreign policy, and ideology (e.g. exceptionalism)
Wars are connected in a pattern of human ideology and action, but are never the result of impersonal forces that just ‘happen’ – wars are chosen by someone. i.e. War doesn’t ‘break out’ – it gets started by someone for some reason. The reasons are often intentionally obscured, depending upon the goals (interference or non-interference, support or non-support) of the describing party. The commonly cited causes of nationalism, ethnic conflict, etc. are causes but are the result of these primary causes. For instance, while the US cited “ancient tribal conflict” as making the Hutu genocide against Tutsis “inevitable”, in fact the Hutus and Tutsis lived harmoniously, even after colonial rule, until the influx of Marxism into Hutu ideology. The myth of ancient unavoidable causes of war is used when inaction is wanted; the claim of a monstrous ideology is used when action is desirable.
Colorful phrases like “civil war”, “war of independence”, “liberation”, “freedom”, and other names added to the word “war” (e.g. “Shifta”) are determined by who wins and who Western governments choose to recognize as winners. A “civil war” is not the correct term for when a revolutionary, guerilla organizations attacks the government or targets civilians. Similar phrases like “people’s” or “popular”, “liberation” or “salvation”, “democratic”, etc. added to the worlds “army”, “front”, “movement”, etc. are all, likewise, canards, and almost invariably reflect a patent falsehood. In other words, when any of these words are used, almost invariably they are used to obscure the truth and promulgate lies – there is almost no instance of these terms actually being used in a truthful, accurate way – if any at all. Another way of putting it: propaganda (as a facet of psyops) is the rule, not the exception, in all conflict for the past 66 years.
Any other nation committing the series of events in this timeline would likely have been the target of a third world war, the subject of international condemnation and embargo, would have been placed on the terrorist state list of most nations, and would have had countless government figures tried for international war crimes. In short, it would have been condemned as an axis of evil, a murderous terror-state, and its several administrations and congresses and judiciaries at this time considered one long genocidal regime, much like the USSR or China.