The Sum of All Heresies

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    These words I, Leo, have set down for love and as a safeguard of the orthodox faith (Haec Leo posui amore et cautela fidei orthodoxa). - Pope Leo III (defending the original Creed by engraving it in silver to display in Rome)
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    These men have said all the rash impudence there is to say... - Patriarch St. Photius the Great (Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit)
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    "The Symbol of the Faith must be preserved inviolate, as at its origin. Since all the holy doctors of the Church, all the Councils and all the Scriptures put us on our guard against heterodoxy, how dare I, in spite of these authorities, follow those who urge us to unity in a deceitful semblance of union—those who have corrupted the holy and divine Symbol of Faith and brought in the Son as second cause of the Holy Spirit" - St. Mark of Ephesus - The Pillar of Orthodoxy
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3rd-1st Century BC
Septuagint translated into Koine Greek. The translation was greeted by the Hellenic Greco-Jews as a miraculous work. This became the scriptures quoted by Jesus and the Apostles and the scriptures of the Church, which continued to write the Epistles, Gospels, and Apocalyse in Greek, as well as its earliest liturgical works. To this day, the Orthodox have preserved unbroken the availability of these works which they have sung and prayed and read without change. Likewise the format of scriptures is preserved in that, instead of collecting the works into a Bible for use in worship, the Psalter (Psalms) are still kept in the choirs which still sing them antiphonally. The Epistles are kept in the lectern for reading aloud, as the Apostles instructed all the Churches to do. The Law and the Prophets is likewise kept there. The Holy Gospels are kept in the altar. And the Apocalypse is not read aloud liturgically, since it is seales, just as the scriptures also say.

49-96 AD
The Orthodox write the New Testament. It is written in Koine Greek, which is the liturgical Greek of the Church. From this time the entirety of scriptures will begin to be read continually in every Church. After 325, the canon is fixed, and the scriptures are part of the continual liturgical cycle.

70 AD
The trodding down of Jerusalem by the Romans. Jews found a rabbinical school in Jamnia which becomes the wellspring of the new religion of Rabbinic Judaism. This school rejects the Septuagint, previously in use by Jews worldwide, since the Orthodox were making such use of it in converting the world by references to the prophesies concerning the Christ and the Thetokos. They turned to the Masoretic Hebrew text, instead, and likewise barred as “apocryphal’ the inter-testimental deuterocanonical books, considering them tainted, and so reducing the canon of acceptable scriptures. They began to revive a Rabbinical tradition of interpretation of scriptures to reinterpret texts previously thought to refer to the Messiah as texts concerning the persecuted Israel, notably prophesies of Isaiah and of David (i.e. the Psalms).

1517 AD
A hypothetical (mythical) Council of Jamnia and certainly its ideas began to be cited as support for rejecting deuterocanonical books and creating Protestant “bibles’ of only 66 books which utilize the Masoretic text rather than the Septuagint. In fact, the original 1611 King James Bible contained deuterocanonical books translated from the Septuagint, but Puritanical editions, most commonly seen on store shelves today lack the royal seal and so also have freely removed the deuterocanonical books as well as all of the liturgical instruments contained in the original (liturgical calendar, lectionary, mssion statement of the translation committee, etc.). Interestingly, the New Testament portion of the text is substantially the Byzantine Majority text type (preserved in the Orthodox liturgies and scriptures), in contrast to contemporary English translations which synthesize diverse minority texts that are considered older, according to the principles of secular textual criticism. In regard to the number of books, Protestants typically argue that the Jews should know which books are authentic; Roman Catholics and Orthodox typically respond that the Jews did not recognize their own Messiah, how would they recognize their own Scriptures who prophesied his coming?

1611 AD
King James Bible published in 1611. Original 1611 version has 80 books. 14 of these would be removed by Protestants from most copies over the next two centuries.


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